Commas – September 23, 2014



When should you use a comma?


When separating phrases that don’t need to be there

When linking two independent clauses with a conjunction

When you’re addressing someone in particular

When making a list

When you have more than one adjective modifying a noun

After introductory phrases or clauses


Ending of a letter

Geographic Locations


When not to use commas?

All other times-

When separating two independent clauses without a conjunction

After the conjunction

When separating a dependent and independent clause with a conjunction

Punctuation Dialogue

When you are using punctuation with dialogue you have to follow a few simple rules. One of them is that only to words are surrounded with quotation marks. Another rule is that you need to keep the punctuation marks inside the quotation marks. One other rule is that an interrupted speech only needs quotation marks at the beginning and the end. One more rule is that you need to start a new paragraph each time the speaker changes. ANother rule is that when people are in an ongoing long conversation, you don’t have to keep using their name.

Tenses Table

Sentence Types Video Notes

  • Simple Sentences has subject, verb and object. This is also called an independent clause. It has to make sense.
  • Compound Sentences has two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction. FANBOYS
  • Complex Sentences are made up of several parts or clauses. It has a main clause. Has subordinating clause that gives extra information. List of subordinating clause. Subordinating clause be at the beginning, middle, split in half or be at the end of a sentence. If the subordinating clause comes at the beginning of the sentence, there has to be a comma before the main clause. If the subordinating clause is in the middle, there needs to be a comma at the beginning of it and at the end of it. If the subordinating clause is split in two halves, there needs to be a comma after the beginning one and there needs to be a comma before the end one. Ways to make a complex sentence: start with two adjectives, start with a ly word, start with a ing word, end with an ing word, sandwich technique, preposition phrase, start with a conjunction, end with a conjunction or use a simile.
  • Compound-Complex Sentence has a least two independent clauses and at least one subordinating clause.



Colons are in sentences, lists and salutations. Colons go after a sentence that could be by itself but instead has a list the comes after. An example where the colon is used correctly is Ali has many things that she is doing this summer: seeing her friend, going to camp and seeing her family. I expanded the sentence by using a colon. You cannot use a colon if the first half of the sentence cannot go by itself. The word after the colon is not capitalised if it is not usually capitalised. You can also switch the colon with a comma and then the word namely.









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