Communication Protocols Pt2

Various Communication Methods for Digital Signaling


Digital – discrete values that have breaks and are not smooth

Analog – smooth continuous curves

PWM – pulse width modulation

I2C – inter integrated circuit

Serial data – data transfer sequential

SPI – serial peripheral interface

SCL- serial clock

SS- slave select

MISO- master in slave out

MOSI – master our slave in


SPI three slaves image  is used in SD card

UART or Universal Asynchronous Receiver – transmitter (data transmission protocol)  used in USBs


Image result for oscope

The PID controller – proportional, integral and derivative

Proportional controller- outputs based on magnitude of error

Integral controller – outputs based on the magnitude and duration of error

Derivative controller – outputs based on the rate of change of the error


  1. What are the differences between analog and digital signals?

Digital is discrete, on/off. It also has a set amount of values that are allowed to be used. Having a set amount of values it is not as accuracte as anlog signals. On the other hand analog signals are continuous and have an infinite range of values. Having an infinite range allows analog signals to be more precise. But the down side is that analog signals are harder to work with.

  1. Compare and contrast the nature and use of I2C, SPI and UART.

See video for more indept explanation

Image result for I2C, SPI and UART.

  1. Explore the use of such Digital Signal Processing (DSP) in Arduino

It is used for serial communication between the Arduino board and a computer or other devices. All Arduino boards have at least one serial port (also known as a UART or USART): Serial. It communicates on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX) as well as with the computer via USB. Without the serial UART DSP system  used in arduino, the arduino would not be able to communicate with the computer and devices connected to the arduino.

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