Density Of Matter

1.Density is basically like the property of “float”, or how dense you are. Density is determined by 2 properties, Mass, and Volume. The formula to finding the Density of an object is strictly put, D = M/V. This means Mass divided my Volume equals an objects Density. So, to easily find out if something would float in water or now, if the mass was less than the volume, then it would float. Here’s an example:

Lets say a ping pong ball has a mass of 2.7 grams. And lets say it has a volume of 33cm^3 (rounded to the nearest whole number). First off, we know that ping pong balls float in water (duh), and we can prove that because the mass is less than the volume. Now, to find it's density, we divide 2.7 into 33 parts. That puts it around 0.08182 g/cm3.

The units are actually quite simple. For mass, any unit works. For volume, it’s the same unit as mass minus 2. So lets say we measure the mass in decigrams, then the volume would be measure in millimetres.

2.Gasses are always less dense than liquids because they take up more space. Gas atoms are spread apart more than liquids. Lets think, if gasses had a density higher than water, then a drink of water would be a nightmare. First, the gas would all spill into the cup of water displacing all of the water inside out. Then we would have some water on the surface you are standing on because while all this is happening, gravity is still in effect.

3.Temperature affects the density. That isn’t that precise, because temperature actually affects the volume. See, the warmer it is, the more energetic the atoms/molecules get, and they spread farther apart from each other. The warmer it is, the less dense an object is. For example, say we have an ice cube. If we put it in water, it would sink, and melt, but thats not what we’re here to talk about at the moment. If we heat it up, it turns into liquid H2O. At this time the area it takes up would increase, which is quite evident because the higher temperature would make the atoms more energised. Then, another 100*C higher and we get gas, which would never sink under water, or else people would have shown us floating water over gas by now.

4.Around 1.55g/cm3

5. 96.12g

6.Pure Gold has a density of 19.3g/cm3. Au(gold), would easily sink in water.



Trials of Life:  “Living Together”                                           Name_______________________­­­­­­­

Symbiotic relationships:  Which one is it?


  1. Both benefit
  2. Only one benefits, but the other isn’t harmed
  3. Only one benefits, but the other is harmed



a.  What kind of symbiotic relationship is between these animals? Choose from 1, 2, or 3 above.  b.  Explain the relationship.


  • Mangrove monkeys & spotted deer

A monkey drops food a off a tree while also leaving some for himself to eat. Deer can detect danger with their smell that monkeys can’t smell.


  • Gobi fish & shrimp

They live together, sharing the same home. The shrimp is blind; the Gobi fish leads the shrimp. The shrimp makes the whole house; the Gobi Fish can tell the shrimp if there is danger is not. When the Gobi fish goes into the home, the shrimp follows. The Gobi gets it’s food alone, the shrimp needs the Gobi to help it get it’s food. If the shrimp goes to far away, the Gobi goes to find the shrimp to help it back to the home.

  • Hermit crab & ragworm

The ragworm lives inside the shell that the Hermit crabs lives in, the crab gets food, and the ragworm gets remains from the claws. This is one type where one benefits(the ragworm) while the other(Hermit Crab) doesn’t. Octopi love Hermit Crabs, so when it’s eaten, the worm is also eaten.

  • Hermit crab & sea anemone

The hermit crabs travels, the sea anemone is a bodyguard. The anemone is tickled off it’s rock and stuck onto the crab’s back. There are usually more than 1 anemone on the back for more protection. When the octopus tries to eat the crab, it feels the anemone, so it’s not sure if it’s a crab or not, and usually just swims away. The anemone gets little pieces of food when the crab leaves remains after a meal.

  • Tree ants and caterpillar (green)

The caterpillar has nibbles on it which fascinate the ants, and when the one on the back is stimulated, it makes honey which the ant can eat. While the caterpillar is eating off it’s leaves, the ant guards the caterpillar so nothing will prey it. Also, a perfume is released from the caterpillar’s back, which keep ants happy. More than one it is on a caterpillar, so when a meal comes, the team of ants quickly gets it, so the 2 species can eat it. Ants can make a shelter for their precious caterpillar out of leaves that are binded with larva.

  • Tree ants and caterpillar (orange)

The caterpillar has a shield, the caterpillar goes into the ants nest, and when to the core, it slowly eats the ant larva, which is what their meal is mostly made of. It doesn’t go for the queen, not the guards, only the larva. After weeks of eating, the caterpillar comes out of its shield, and becomes a butterfly. It’s covered with slipper scales, which are too slippery for it to eat. The caterpillar benefits while the Tree ants are harmed.

  • Fleas and birds

Fleas live in birds nest, and after 2 days of birth(for a baby bird) the fleas jump onto the bird and suck up all the blood. Without wings, the bird is doomed. Then they eat up all the feathers, which make sure the bird cant fly and will die. The fleas benefit but the birds are harmed.

  • Mites and bumblebees

Mites infest the bumblebee nest, and stick onto the bumblebees, so the bumblebees itch. Eventually the whole colony is filled with mites, which doom the nest. The mites benefit, but the bumblebees are harmed.

  • Mite and moth

The moths have an ear in the side of it’s head, which colonies of mites live inside it. They get there from flowers that have nectar the moths eat. When the moth eats, the mite cools its tongue. When the mites block the ear, they only block one, so the moths can hear when bats come, so they wont be preyed on. The mite’s benefit, but the moth isn’t harmed.

  • Mouse & beetles

Beetles live in the mice fur. Mice live in holes, which are infested with fleas. When a mouse sleeps, the beetles go and find prey. So the mice don’t get attacked my fleas. The beetle’s benefit, but the mouse isn’t harmed.

  • Finches & giant tortoise

Tortoises are infested by ticks, which the finches love to eat. When the finches want to eat, they jump in from of the tortoise, and the tortoise straightens its legs, so the finches can eat the ticks that the tortoise can’t remove. Both benefit.

  • Manta ray & small fish

There are sea lice that burrow into its skin. The small fish swim around the ray, so when able, they go around and even inside the Manta Ray to remove it’s passengers. Both benefit.


  • Giraffe & ox peckers

The ox peckers almost live permanently on the giraffe. The giraffe is basically the home of the peckers. They take fur from the giraffe to make it’s home, and they live on the giraffe. The peckers have claws that can stay on the giraffe. When wounded, the ox peckers keep the wound open to eat all its ticks. The ox peckers benefit while the giraffe are harmed.

  • Fluke & snail & bird

When a bird lays some droppings with fluke eggs in them, and a snail eats them, the fluke takes over the body of the snail. It makes on of it’s tentacles pulsate, and change the behavior of snails, making them liking to stay outside in danger. A bird would eat the snail, then the fluke makes eggs and the whole cycle starts again. Except also the parasites injure the bird. The fluke benefits, the bird either benefit or get harmed, and the snail is definitely harmed.




What two ways do parasites that live inside animals actually get inside of them?

The parasites can stay on grass or any other food that other animals eat. When the hungry animal comes, the parasite is in the food and goes into the animal’s body. Another way an animal gets in is it can just fly in through the mouth.



How can an animal, like a water buffalo, be considered like a walking zoo?

Because it contains a lot of bugs and parasite that live in it the buffalo basically becomes a biome of parasites.

Ecology Questions

The Living Earth


How is Earth different from the other planets in the solar system? One difference is that Earth supports living organisms! The part of Earth with life is called the biosphere. The biosphere includes the top part of the crust, the oceans, and the atmosphere.

The biosphere is made of many different environments. The environments on Earth are home to many different kinds of organisms. For example, the Rio Grande Valley receives very little rain. Cacti, lizard, coyotes, javelinas and many other organisms live in this type of environment. On the other hand, rain forests receive plenty of rain. Parrots, monkeys, large trees, and thousands of others live in the
rain forest. There are many other environments all over the world.

If you visit Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, you
might see something like the pictures. A hawk lands on a plant. The
hawk lives off of snakes in the grass. A butterfly pollinates the plant.
These pictures are part of an ecosystem. An ecosystem includes all of
the living and non-living things in an area. In the pictures, the plant,
hawk, butterfly, water, sunlight, soil and air are all part of the desert
ecosystem. Ecology is the study of how organisms and non-living things interact in an environment. Ecologist are scientists who study ecosystems.

Imagine you are an ecologist. You might study how cougars move from place to place and how they care for their young. You would be studying the members of a population. A population is made of all the

organisms in an ecosystem that are from the same species (the same type of organism). For example, all the hawks in Laguna Atascosa make up one population. All the monarch butterflies make up another population. All the border lilies make up yet another population.

Another ecologist might be studying how butterflies pollinate border lilies. Another ecologist might be studying how the snake population reacts to an increase in the hawk

population. These ecologists are studying how different populations interact. They are studying a community. A community is made of all the populations in an ecosystem. This means that it includes all living organisms in the ecosystem. A rainforest community would include all the parrots, monkeys, trees, and other living organisms in the rainforest. An arctic community might include populations of fish, seals that eat the fish, and polar bears that eat the seals.

Every organism in an ecosystem needs a place to live. The place where an organism lives is its habitat. The salamander in the picture is in its habitat. Salamanders avoid sunlight and seek damp, dark places. They eat worms, insects, and slugs. An organism’s habitat provides food, shelter, and the appropriate amount of heat and moisture.

Name___________________ Date____________________

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The Living Earth

Directions: Use the reading to answer the questions below.

  1. The biosphere is
    The part of earth where life is.
  2. An ecosystem is
    The system of life in an area.
  3. Ecology is
    The study of biotic and abiotic species and how they interact.
  4. A population is
    The amount of 1 species in an area.
  5. A community is
    A group of different species.
  6. A habitat is
    The native home of an animals or plant.
  7. What is the difference between a community and a population? Communities are multiple species, populations are single species.
  8. Give one example of a community:

The community in this area is thriving togeather

  1. Give one example of a population: The human population is over 9000!

10. Look at the picture. List ALL the populations you see in the picture.

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I see fish, birds, dragonflies, pigs, tigers, and snakes.

  1. Look at the picture. Describe one interaction that might occur between populations.

The bird could eat the fish.

  1. Look at the picture. What things are NOT part of the community?

Trees, weeds, seaweed, leaves.

  1. Look at the picture. What is the snake’s habitat?

The snakes habitat amazingly appears to be underwater!

Bicycle System

Objective: To understand how the different systems of a bicycle relate to each other and be able to identify the properties of each part or subsystem.

1. Read this website linked here

Bicycle Heroes at The Franklin Institute

2. Review the information from this link to the Science of Cycling on The Exploratorium website. Apply your knowledge of systems to answer the questions below and then be prepared to present your answers to the class.

Also, use this worksheet to take notes as the other groups present their answers.

a. Describe the subsystem that your group researched. What is its function within the bicycle system?

b. Complete the table to indicate how the sub system affects the bicycle’s speed, safety, comfort, and durability.

3. Complete the table below to identify the following:

   Name the parts of the bicycle’s subsystem. If you don’t know the name of a part,

make up a name.

•            Tell what function each part has and how it contributes to the subsystem. For the bicycle subsystem to work, what input must it receive?

•            What, if any output does the subsystem produce?

4.  Could any part of this bicycle be made of a different material and still help the bicycle carry out its function??

The chain cogs are commonly made out of plain carbon and alloy steel. It could be made out of another material if the metal was strong enough to stay solid up to 50oC, and able to hold the pressure of the human leg.

5. Can any one part of the bicycle carry out the job of the whole bicycle? Explain your answer.

No.  This is because the bicycle is a complex machine that requires many systems to move.  If one system is not there, like the drives and gears, the this kind of bicycle will not be able to operate because then the wheels will not be able to move.  Of course, other kinds of bicycles can operate, like having the seat right on top of the wheel, but that would decrease stability.

6.  Can you take a part from another bicycle and use it or replace a part in this bicycle and still have the bicycle carry out its function?

NO because some bicycles have different purposes like a mountain bike and a normal bike they are very different and suited for different enviorments. Lets say you put a different brake system and put it to this mountain bike the brakes may not work or if you put a saddle from a different bike then it may not fit or be too small or too big.

7.  Could some parts of the bicycle be arranged differently so that the system will still carry out its function? Explain your answer.

No because if you switch some gears with other gears it can mess up the bicycle system just like if a bird started to live underwater it would not work out right? thats why I think if you switch gears or anything from a bicycle or any sort of system it should not work out.

8.  Does the bicycle require symmetry among any of its parts? If so, describe the symmetry.

The bicycle requires to have some symmetry within their parts to make the bike stable to transfer your power in order to let the bicycle work, for example, if you take out the handles and replace it with another one that doesn’t have the same length the driver would have trouble steering the bike, which he would eventually fall.

9.  What will happen to the bicycle if one part, such as a spoke, breaks? What if all the spokes on a wheel brake?

If only one spoke came of, or one tooth on a gear, the bike could probably function still, but if the whole system failed, like all the spokes were gone, or the entire gear system failed, then the bike would not be able to move.

10.Is it useful to think of a bicycle as a system? Justify your answer.

Yes because if you switch gears around in a bicycle it would not move or something would not work just like a system if a bird switches with a fish then the fish would be in the air and the bird would be underwater so the system would start to fail

Stronger Materials=easy snap


Seat cushioned seat



Metal strong

A bicycle brake reduces the speed of a bicycle or prevents it from moving.