Conduction is the transfer of energy or heat between matters of properties wether it is two, three or four that are touching each other. It is basically the transfer or heat to something else. Moving the heat to energise other particles. It normally occurs when energised/heated particles of matter come in contact with something else that is cooler than it. For example, when on a cold day, it feels good to put your hands on a hot chocolate, that is because the heat from the chocolate, is transferring to you hands! To summarise, when warm matter collides with cold matter, the transfer the thermal energy of the cooler particles of matter.
Convention is the transfer of energy by particles moving through a fluid. The transfer of the thermal energy to places is called a cycle. So as and example as of a hot pot boiling water, the water in the bottom of the pot is hotter which makes it less dense rising, while the cold water in the top is more dense then goes to the bottom of the pot, heating it up and then rising again. So basically it is a cycle going again and again. Moving particles transfer thermal energy through a fluid by forming convention currents. If you think of in a way, it is also happening around the world, as the cold air is on the land and coming from the sea. But then it reverses during the night time as there are no more heat or energy source.
Thermal radiation is the transfer of thermal energy through energy waves that can travel through air of through empty space. The thermal waves, warms up the area making radiation or the process is called radiation. Everything radiates through objects even though it is still not warm. Some examples can be that the sun, is shining the on the earth as radiation because of the energy waves. Another example can be even though near a camp fire, you feel warm but you are not necessarily on top of the fire, you can feel it warm, this is another example of radiation.
Answer the Following
Metals are good conductors of heat because the particles in the metal are very close to each other so that the heat can travel very easily. Hot water rises along with air because when the water is hot in the bottom of the earths surface, it gets hot and when it is hot, it is less dense and it rises while the cool air goes down and gets heated up and then happens again as a cycle. The campfire heat is transferred as radiation as the heat waves strike us, human. I think that these relate to our states of matter unit because as in conduction, it transfer the energy making the particles move very quickly, thats exactly what is happening from solid to liquid or liquid to solid. Another way would be that the cold air or water is more dense and the hot air is less dense.