End of Year Reflection


1. I improved as a mathematician because I can solve harder problems and connect them to other problems.

2. I am better at mathematical thinking because I get more complicated concepts.

3. I understand problems more than before. I am quite precise in my answers, even to the third or fourth decimal. I need to improve on my modelling.



1.I know many concepts now and can put them to use in life now.


Local Winds Notes

  • Warm air rises when the land is hotter
  • Colder air comes from sea to the land
  • Monsoons blow from sea to land in the winters (though I would expect snow)
  • Summer monsoons usually start on land then go to sea
  • Summer monsoons also ruin the idea of a sunny summer (especially in India)
  • Southern Asia monsoons are the most important because they bring water to the people there
  • In a valley breeze, both warm and cool air rise
  • A mountain breeze cools the air around and so the cold air goes back down
  • Katabatic winds are stronger than valley and mountain breezes
  • Katabatic winds form over large plateaus
  • The plateau becomes cold in the winter
  • The cold air sinks into the gap in the mountains
  • These winds can be very cold over Antarctica and Greenland
  • Chinook winds come when air is pushed to the mountains by force
  • Warm air rises over the Sierra Nevada in California because the westerly wind pushes warm air to the west
  • The air becomes colder when it rises and then it precipitates
  • Since the air is cold, it sinks over the mountains creating strong winds
  • The Chinook winds are quite warm
  • The winds can melt snow easily
  • The sinking and dry air makes a rainshadow effect
  • A rainshadow effect is what creates many deserts
  • The Santa Ana winds create many fires in southern California
  • They come at the end of Californian droughts
  • The air to the east of Sierra Nevada cools down in the late fall
  • This makes a high pressure zone
  • The air is pushed down to the south west of California
  • The winds blow westward to the ocean
  • The air is blocked by mountains so the air has to be funnelled through
  • If a fire starts, it would spread quite quickly
  • High temperature on the deserts means high winds and monsoons
  • Winds can pick up dust and blow it around
  • This creates a dust storm aka a haboob
  • Air pressure can be changed because of the height above sea level, temperature, and Water Vapour
  • Cold air is dense
  • Hot air is not as dense as cold air
  • At the beach on a hot and sunny day, the water cools down the air so it comes onto the land which warms it and sends it back up
  • Higher the pressure, stronger the wind
  • Cold air has higher pressure than the warm air so it has a stronger wind
  • High pressure cold air that sinks is called a downdraft, and warm air that rises is called an updraft
  • The Coriolis Effect makes winds go east to west, or west to east
  • Sea breezes come inward to the land
  • Land breezes go outward to sea

Sea Breeze:

Sea Breezes come because the sea is colder than the land since water takes a long time to heat up so it cools down the air. The land is warmer so it heats up the air and the air rises. The land is a low pressure zone because there is less pressure since the higher the air is, the less pressure there is. Meanwhile the ocean is a high pressure zone because the air is sinking, which means that is is coming closer to sea level, therefore creating higher pressure. The cold air from the sea blows into the land, which heats up the air and the air goes across to the sea. When the air is heated and floats up, that is called an updraft. When the air sinks, that is called a downdraft. That is how a sea breeze is formed.


Land Breeze:

Land Breezes are formed when the sea is warmer than the land at night since the sea, more or less, maintains a steady temperature. Since the sun is down, the lands temperature has dropped enormously. Since the sea is warmer than the land, the sea heats up the air and creates a low pressure zone because of the high warm air. Meanwhile, the land is cooling the air down and making it sink, creating a high pressure zone and a downdraft because of how low the air is to the ground. The high pressure ind blows to the warmer place where it gets heated up and rises again, just to be cooled down again. This is basically the reverse of the Sea Breeze. That is how a land breeze is formed.

Coriolis Effect

1. The Coriolis Effect is where if you are on the southern hemisphere thing seem to be curving to the left and in the northern hemisphere things turn to the right.

2. Earth rotating.

3. Right

4. Left

5. They will end up to the west in the Northern Hemisphere to their intended point but for the southern hemisphere it will end up to the east.


Convection, Conduction and Radiation

Convection is the transfer of heat through warm air. This happens because the particles in the air keep passing on the heat from particle to particle.

Conduction is heat going through an object or a material. The heat gets passed on from electrons that have lost the force to a nucleus and are wandering around passing on the heat.

Radiation is waves of heat. You can feel it from a farther distance depending upon the source. If the source is the sun, then the waves travel hundreds of millions of miles in less than 10 minutes.


1. Metals are good Conductors of heat because they have many free electrons going around to make molecules vibrate more to create heat through friction and free electrons.

2. Hot water and air rises because when they get heated up, they become less dense and therefore go higher up into the atmosphere.

3. There are radiation waves or heat waves that travel from the campfire to me and transfer heat.

4. Conduction is connected with the states of matter because all states of matter conduct heat, even if its good or not.

Separating Solutions

Q1: Describe the physical properties of the substance that remains in the evaporating dish.

A1: The substance in the dish has these physical properties: white in colour, mushy, closer together, softer, warmer, and wetter.

Q2: Where is the water that was in the salt water solution?

A2: The water is now in the air, adding to the humidity of the room. The air has dissolved the water, forming a cloud.

Q3: What do you think the substance is that remained in the evaporating dish?

A3: I think the substance is fresh salt because it was burnt to a point where the bacteria would die. Some of the bacteria could have mixed with the water.

Q4: What could you do to identify the substance?

A4: I could test its density, solubility and mass. I could just test all physical properties.

Q5: Explain why scientists would classify cereal as a heterogeneous mixture.

A5: Cereal looks different from the top to bottom and is not evenly distributed throughout.There are different colours and sizes, which makes it look different.

Q6: After a minor traffic accident, the police noticed that a solution had spilled and run off

the roadway onto the shoulder of the road. Describe how you could recover a

sample of this solution from the dirt, rocks, and sand on the road’s shoulder.

A6: I could use tweezers to remove the rock from the mixture, then use a spoon to get the sand and dirt. You should then be left with some unabsorbed solution in the cup.

Q7: When a scientist mixed together a number of substances, light, heat, and gas were

produced. The scientist could not separate the new substance using physical

properties like solubility, density, or color. Did the scientist create a mixture, or did

she produce something else? Explain how the product she produced was alike and/or

different from the homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures you have used.

A7: The scientist produced a compound or something else, but definitely not a mixture because a mixture can be easily separated, a solution is a bit harder, but this is much harder than a solution. This is like a homogeneous mixture I have used because light is bright and same colour from top to bottom, heat is invisible and so is gas.

Solubility Questions

1. Mr.Anderson described solubility as how easy it is for the solute to dissolve in a given solvent. If the solubility is low then it is hard for the solute to dissolve but if the solubility is high it is easy.

2. Talc is insoluble because it cannot mix with water no matter how much you stir. Even if you stir a really small amount, it won’t dissolve.

3. Increasing the temperature of the solvent will increase the solubility of a solute because it will allow more of the solute to go in and dissolve.

4. There is less oxygen near the equator than at a higher latitude because colder water allows more air to dissolve than warmer water.

5. The fish keep dying because of the warm water. The warm water cannot dissolve as much oxygen as the previous cold water. This is why the fish die.

Boiling Point lab 2

  1. What is the boiling point of water in degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit? The universal known boiling point of water is 100 degrees celsius or 212 degrees fahrenheit.
  2. How does the boiling point of water change at altitudes below sea level? The boiling point rises the lower your altitude because the atmospheric pressure becomes higher.
  3. Does water containing impurities boil at a higher or lower temperature than pure water? It will boil at a higher temperature because the impurities will need to be heated up as well.