Grade 8 Reading

Photo on 14-9-15 at 2.20 PM Photo on 14-9-15 at 2.18 PM #2 Photo on 21-9-15 at 12.40 PM       Photo on 21-9-15 at 12.39 PM   For my Formative Reading Assessment I was pleased with my organisation and my formatting skills however I found it a challenge to summarise everything I had to say in the word limit we were given.

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I think that my organisation of putting my opinion, the quotes and then the so what was good. However the main reason why I got an AE was because I didn’t answer the last question which impacted my grade drastically. My goal moving forward is to read each question carefully and make sure I have extra time to revise my work. I also want to consolidate my words so I have space for all my answers.

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I think overall I did well on my reading summative. I made sure to organise my answers for each question with my opinion, quote, and then a “so what”/ explanation since I was having problems with that in my last reading summative. If I had more time, I would have wanted to look over some of my answers and add some more information or opinion on it. For the most part, I feel I have explained all of the questions thoroughly, however in the future I would want to give different opinions (different sides) to show a better understanding of the reading assessment. Nevertheless, it was definitely an improvement from my last reading assessment and I plan on continuing to improve on my reading assessments.


Memento Nora Book Talk

Reflection: I think there were two big things that popped out to me almost immediately. The first one being my body language. When we were doing our book talk I tried my best to look Hannah in the eye whenever she was talking to show that she had my full attention however the rest of my body seemed very restless, since I was fidgeting, shaking my legs, pushing my glasses up and so on. Another thing I found when I was listening to the recording was that I had a lot of “likes” while I was talking which I felt definitely interrupted to flow of the conversation but I wasn’t aware of it at the time. Also I think that I need to focus more on being tangible and clear about my point. Is it a prediction? Just a comment? Or a question? and so forth. I felt I was really good at probing and adding on to the things Hannah was saying but then after I would add on to it I felt there were times when I would then stop and not contribute a point of my own. Luckily, there were a  few times where Hannah paused to let me realise I need to add a point but next time I think I should be more aware of it and do so myself. Something I think I also need to work on is monitoring my air time because there are pockets in the video where its me talking for quite a while and Hannah is just listening. I think overall what I need to work on is to be able to be aware of all these things at once because while we are having this book talk I am thinking of the traits of conversation but the problem was that I would only focus on so many at a time and I would lose track of the other, for example, I would be focused on eye contact and being a good listener when she’s talking, but then when I talk I don’t monitor my air time so that gives her less time to talk, and less time for me to be a good listener. As I mentioned before, I think I was very good about inquiring and probing Hannah to think more about what she wrote down and was a good listener.


Memento Nora Book Talk #2

In the second book talk I think it went a lot smoother than our first and we had really good conversation. I think that we both fed off of the things that the other person was saying, and added to it. I continued to try and inquire and probe but instead of just asking her questions and also added my own thoughts which sometime contradicted with her own that made us both think. When we did disagree, I felt that I was polite but still held my ground about why I think it was different from the way she was thinking about it (example: how no one put the dots together that TFC and the government were actually the ones setting off the bombs in public and wether the government really cared about people or were just trying to make a commotion). I also think I was more straightforward and clear while I was talking, for example instead of just rambling on I would say “I had a prediction…” or ” A comment I had was…” Interrupting wasn’t, what I thought, was a huge problem the last time we had a book talk, but when we were talking last time there were moments when she would say something that I had thought of too and before she transitioned into a another thought I had the urge to say “Yes, me too!” or “I agree!” so this time while she was talking and she said something that I agreed with or I had thought of too I tried to distinctly nod and I also feel this action also shows the person your listening to them and hearing what their saying. I also in turn with inquiring and probing Hannah when she would do that same for me I would be sure to think and add more to what I was saying or explain in more detail about my thoughts. I think I also monitored my air time more to try and match Hannah’s more and the slight difference in time gave her a lot more of chance to talk and add points that I in turn could add on. In the end, we both had quite a few questions about the ending and although I expressed all of mine I still felt Hannah hadn’t really said anything in a while while I talked on about my questions so I probed her one last time asking her about her final thoughts which I think was a good way to end things. Overall, I think that I have definitely improved since last time and that our conversation was able to be much more interesting and fluent.

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EHIC Assessment

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For the Everything Has Its Costs project, I think that I made sure to articulate all my words so that I would have a loud and tangible voice.  I also synced up the photos the best I could so they comfortably changed from photo to photo in correlation with my speech. However, next time I would definitely work on practicing my script more because although I can read it with relatively little trouble, I think it would have been better to look up at the camera more. Also, music was, of course, one of the biggest issues in my video and next time I will make sure to thoroughly edit/revise all projects more carefully. In short, I think I overall did very well on the video project, especially the visual, and information.

The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton – Reflection

(Sequencing Brain frame of The Outsider’s literary devices and events)


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Previously, we had gone through finding literary devices in The Giver by Lois Lowry however we would guided through the process. In The Outsiders, we found the literary devices, including motifs, symbols, mostly by ourselves. By asking us to search out literary devices it helped me better understand the story and its deeper meaning. Finding motifs, symbols, and themes were definitely a big help to reflect on the story. Although I had a difficult time finding motifs and symbols I think that one of my strengths were actually taking these literary devices and dissecting them which sometimes meant debating with my book club about them or on my own. I was also very good at finding literary devices about metaphors, similes, and hyperboles. Something I struggled with was slang, because The Outsiders is definitely a book that is its own world and therefore uses a lot of slang which sometimes got me caught up. As mentioned above, I had some trouble finding motifs, and symbols, but mostly themes were the hardest to find. In all, I feel that I did a good job interpreting what S.E. Hinton was saying and the purpose in the book.

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Reading Comprehension – Emojis


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Shakespeare 400 costume, speaking, and reading

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Wonder Words Wall

Amelia Lost by Candace Fleming:

Precocious – having developed certain abilities earlier or faster than expected

Pottered – to occupy ones time in a desultory but pleasant way

Desultory – lacking a plan, purpose, or enthusiasm

Admonished – disapproving firmly

Reprimand – a formal expression of disapproval

Strenuous – requiring great effort or exertion


The Help by Kathryn Stockett:

Rotunda – a round building or room, especially one with a dome.

Congealed – semi solid, especially after cooling

Ample – enough, more than enough or plentiful

Reverie – A state of being pleasantly lost in one’s thoughts (daydreaming)

Gumption – shrewd, resourcefulness, or spirited initiative

Riveted – Fix (someone, or something) so that it is incapable of movement.

Toting – Carry, wield, or convey something heavy or substantial.

Elucidate – Make something clear or explained

Antebellum – occurring or existing before a particular war.

Privy – Sharing in the knowledge of something secret or private.

Kvetch – a person who complains a great deal


Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank

Ardent – very enthusiastic or passionate

Blithely – showing a casual indifference and is usually callous or improper

Superfluous – unnecessary, especially being through more than enough

Somber – dark and dull in color or tone

Chattel – a personal possession

Lumbago – pain in the muscles and joints of the lower back

Hypochondria – abnormal chronic anxiety in one’s health

Piqued – a feeling of irritation or resentment resulting from a slight, especially to one’s pride

Sermon – a talk on a religious or moral subject, especially one given during a church service and based on a passage from the Bible.

Monotonous – dull, tedious, and repetitious; lacking in variety and interest

Obstinate – stubbornly refusing to change one’s opinion or chosen course of action, despite attempts to persuade one to do so

Surreptitiously – kept secret, especially because it would not be approved of

Lenient – (of a punishment or person in authority) more merciful or tolerant than expected

Pious – devoutly religious

Veritable – used for emphasis, often to qualify a metaphor

Wanton – (of a cruel or violent action) deliberate and unprovoked

Pedantic – excessively concerned with minor details or rules; overscrupulous


The Historian – Elizabeth Kostova

Flouted – openly disregard

Bequeathed – leave property to a person or other beneficiaries by will

Gargantuan – huge

Compendium- a collection of concise but detailed information about a particular subject

Esoterica- highly specialised subject

Monastic- realted to monks, nuns, or others living under religious vows, or the buildings they live in

Unabated- without any reduction in intensity or strength

Idyllic- extremely happy

Matched by Ally Condie

ornate – elaborately or highly decorated:

dilapidated – in a state of disrepair or ruin as a result of age or neglect.

peripatetic –  travelling from place to place, in particular working or based in various places for relatively short periods


Cinder by Marissa Meyer

Egregious – outstandingly bad; shocking


flippant – not showing a serious or respectful attitude

precedence – the condition of being considered more important than someone or something else; priority in importance, order, or rank

cynicism – an inclination to believe that people are motivated purely by self-interest

avail – formal use or take advantage of (an opportunity or available resource)

adamant – refusing to be persuaded or to change one’s mind:

effervescent – giving off bubbles; fizzy.

palpable – able to be touched or felt

tumultuous – making an uproar or loud, confused noise

vehemently – showing strong feeling; forceful, passionate, or intense


Furiously Happy by Jenny Lawson

Peckertated – no definition

paraphernalia – miscellaneous articles, especially the equipment needed for a particular activity.

prolific – producing much fruit or foliage or many offspring

perturbed –  anxious or unsettled

bode – be a portent of a particular outcome

impunity – exemption from punishment or freedom from the injurious consequences of an action


Wolves, Boys, and Other Things That Might Kill Me by Kristen Chandler

incessantly – without interruption; constantly

opulent – ostentatiously costly and luxurious


The Great Gasby by F Scott. Fitzgerald

privy – sharing in the knowledge of

revelation – an enlightening or astonishing disclosure

marred – blemished by injury or rough wear

elation – a feeling of joy and pride

epigram – a witty saying

supercilious – having or showing arrogant superiority to

effeminate – having unsuitable feminine qualities


Food, Girls, and Other Things I Can’t Do by Allen Zadoff

Egregious – outstandingly bad; shocking


flippant – not showing a serious or respectful attitude

Elucidate – Make something clear or explained


The Giver by Louis Lowry

Words are on Quizlet


Obsidian by Jennifer L Armentrout 

Abode – a place of residence

Gargantuan – huge

Compendium- a collection of concise but detailed information about a particular subject

Pottered – to occupy ones time in a desultory but pleasant way

Desultory – lacking a plan, purpose, or enthusiasm

Admonished – disapproving firmly

Riveted – Fix (someone, or something) so that it is incapable of movement.

Toting – Carry, wield, or convey something heavy or substantial.


Onyx by Jennifer L Armentrout

recumbent – lying down

disparagingly – expressing the opinion that something is of little worth

malevolence – the state or condition of being malevolent; hostility

chancery –  chiefly

verisimilitude –  the appearance of being true or real


And Then There Were None by Agatha Christie

exonerated – absolve from blame for a fault or wrongdoing

capricious – given to sudden and unaccountable changes of mood or behaviour

pious – devoutly religious

placid – not easily upset or excited

wry  – using or expressing dry, especially mocking, humour


Opal by Jennifer Armentrout

supremacy – the state or condition of being superior to all others in authority, power, or status

lassitude –  a state of physical or mental weariness; lack of energy


The Book Thief by Markus Zusak

raucous –  making or constituting a disturbingly harsh and loud noise

incongruous – not in harmony or keeping with the surroundings or other aspects of something

amoral – lacking a moral sense; unconcerned with the rightness or wrongness of something

pagan –  a person holding religious beliefs other than those of the main world religions.


Origin by Jennifer L Armentrout

detriments – the state of being harmed or damaged

throes – intense or violent pain and struggle, especially accompanying birth, death, or great change

opus – a separate composition or set of compositions

convoy – a group of ships or vehicles travelling together, typically one accompanied by armed troops, warships, or other vehicles for protection

innocuous – not harmful or offensive

circumspection – the quality of being wary and unwilling to take risks; prudence

countenance – a person’s face or facial expression


Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen 

solace –

comfort or consolation in a time of great distress or sadness

raptures –

a feeling of intense pleasure or joy

ascertaining –

find (something) out for certain; make sure of

disconcerted –

disturb the composure of; unsettle

fastidious  –

very attentive to and concerned about accuracy and detail

apt –

appropriate or suitable in the circumstances

follies –

lack of good sense; foolishness

pedantic –

excessively concerned with minor details or rules

candour –

the quality of being open and honest; frankness

ostentation –

the pretentious or showy display of wealth and luxury, designed to impress.

pliancy –

easily bent

ductility –

able to be deformed without losing toughness; pliable, not brittle

supercilious –

behaving or looking as though one thinks one is superior to others

satirical –

containing or using satire

intrepidity –

fearless; adventurous

effusions –

an instance of giving off something such as a liquid or gas

felicity –

intense happiness

imputed –

represent (something, especially something undesirable) as being done or possessed by someone; attribute

paltry –

very small or meagre

affinity –

a natural liking for and understanding of someone or something

benevolence –

the quality of being well meaning; kindness.

apothecary –

a person who prepared and sold medicines and drugs.

endeavour –

try hard to do or achieve something

complacency –

a feeling of smug or uncritical satisfaction with oneself or one’s achievements

indolent –

wanting to avoid activity or exertion; lazy.

abominable –

causing moral revulsion

decorum –

behaviour in keeping with good taste and propriety

censure –

express severe disapproval of (someone or something), especially in a formal

idle –

avoiding work

profuse –

(especially of something offered or discharged) very plentiful; abundant

efficacy –

the ability to produce a desired or intended result

piquet –

a trick-taking card game for two players, using a 32-card pack consisting of the seven to the ace only.

panegyric –

a public speech or published text in praise of someone or something

laudable –

(of an action, idea, or aim) deserving praise and commendation

precipitance –

a cause of a particular action or event

celerity –

swiftness of movement.

expostulation –

express strong disapproval or disagreement

approbation –

approval or praise

gallantry –

polite attention or respect given by men to women.

salutation –

a gesture or utterance made as a greeting or acknowledgement of another’s arrival or departure

studious –

done deliberately or with a purpose in mind

implacable –

unable to be appeased or placated

propensity  –

an inclination or natural tendency to behave in a particular way

propitious –

giving or indicating a good chance of success; favourable

iniquitous –

grossly unfair and morally wrong

filial –

relating to or due from a son or daughter

rectory –

a rector’s house.

conscientious –

wishing to do one’s work or duty well and thoroughly

atonement –

the action of making amends for a wrong or injury

pompous –

affectedly grand, solemn, or self-important

servility –

an excessive willingness to serve or please others

stately –

impressive or grand in size, appearance, or manner

asperity –

harshness of tone or manner

eloquent –

fluent or persuasive in speaking or writing

deliberation –

long and careful consideration or discussion

vénération –

great respect; reverence

obsequiousness –

obedient or attentive to an excessive or servile degree

corroborate –

confirm or give support to (a statement, theory, or finding)

bequeathed –

leave (property) to a person or other beneficiary by a will

duped –

deceive; trick

adieu –


condescension –

an attitude of patronizing superiority; disdain

phaeton –

a light, open four-wheeled horse-drawn carriage.

alacrity –

brisk and cheerful readiness

magistrate –

a civil officer who administers the law, especially one who conducts a court that deals with minor offences and holds preliminary hearings for more serious ones.

scruple –

a feeling of doubt or hesitation with regard to the morality or propriety of a course of action

officious –

assertive of authority in a domineering way, especially with regard to trivial matters

profligacy –

recklessly extravagant or wasteful in the use of resources

Dorothy Must Die by Danielle Paige

sinewy –

consisting of or resembling sinews.

decrepit –

worn out or ruined because of age or neglect

balefully –

threatening harm; menacing

intermittent –

occurring at irregular intervals; not continuous or steady

rapt –

completely fascinated or absorbed by what one is seeing or hearing

lilting –

a characteristic rising and falling of the voice when speaking

ethereal –

extremely delicate and light in a way that seems not to be of this world

brusquely –

abrupt or offhand in speech or manner

imbibe –

drink (alcohol)

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50 word Quizlet- The Giver

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Macbeth Set 1 Quizlet

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Macbeth Set 3 Quizlet

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PBL Teamwork Reflection

The PBL project required a lot of teamwork. If my partner, Meena, and I, had not used teamwork, we would not have the model we have today.

Teamwork involves collaboration. Everyone will have different ideas and thoughts on how to create and present their model. Collaboration takes all the ideas, and combines them in the way that seems most beneficial and productive. Meena and I both had our own ideas, but then we adapted them so that they would fit together. For example, Meena wanted to show the arms moving up and down with helium balloons to represent what happens after the brain sends a signal (which is to trigger a reaction/movement). While I wanted to use water to represent the signal traveling through the body. Together, we combined our ideas so that the ‘signal’ water would run through the body and ‘trigger’ the arms to move with the helium balloons. Unfortunately,  it did not work out in the end, but another part of collaboration is being able to work together to adapt and tweak the plan and blueprints so it becomes a working model. Another part of collaboration is equally dividing the work to be more productive. Whenever Meena or I found ourselves with nothing to do while the other one was working, we would stop and talk about somethings they could do to help. This brings me to my next point which is communication.

Communication is also a major part in teamwork. As said before, everyone has different ideas and this is because everyone thinks differently. Therefore, it is important we communicate clearly and specifically so that nothing is misunderstood. Often when people don’t communicate properly, there are arguments and it can lead to big mistakes that forces your team to step back instead of moving forward. Meena and I have had some misunderstandings, but we clarify with each other so that it give us another chance to explain in more detail, so we didn’t make any major mistakes that hindered us. Communication also helps understand people’s parts in the project, such as leader, researcher, etc.

Here is a video I think represents teamwork.



In this video, the penguins communicated to slide over on one side of the iceberg. There was also collaboration because everyone needed slide over in order to make the iceberg tilt like it did. Therefore, I think this is a great video of teamwork.


Final PBL reflection

I think that this overall experience with the PBL project was an amazing journey. It teachers you how to deal with challenges. My group had many challenges with the building process. Most of our difficulties were with challenging designs and materials. Firstly, we wanted to use helium balloons, however we then discovered they were not a stable supply that could last us the whole time while demonstrating. We also did not take in account the weight  of materials such as clay brain and discovered that it was too heavy to be held by our thing cardboard base. But we learned to adapt to these problems by making a stronger cardboard base and a shelf to hold our brain on. Also, we decided not to add helium balloons because it didn’t work however it did change anything except that the arms would not move up and down.

Both of our models worked the first time we tried it and the test results were successful. However, we still add changes such as more labels, or adding clue or tape to reinforce the hold on objects so they would not fall apart. Afterwards, we ran another test which seemed run more smoothly after the changes.

I think our model is very effective because it shows the working model through both interaction and movement. We understand that it will grasp the audience much more if they get to be apart of it. In addition, one model was to show the zoomed out more broad picture of how the Nervous system worked while the second model showed in greater detail what was going on in a neuron.  During this teamwork I have learned that it is important you communicate clearly and in detail other wise there can be misunderstandings which lead to problems such as missing materials. Also that it is a team effort so everyone must do equal shares otherwise the project will not work out the way you want it to. So you must pull your own weight as I feel my team has.

Creativity is a key part of this project because the audience doesn’t want to see a copied idea and it will also be less enjoyable building process for yourself. When being creative, it can also spark better ideas and will ultimately give you the best product.

Resilience is also needed because in everything you do, such as these PBL projects, there will be bumps and errors. The problem is we are so excited by one idea we seem to have a hard time letting it go when it doesn’t work. BUt resilience isn’t just about staying with the problem, but adapting it to something more achievable.

Finally, there is collaboration. This is a important part since this was a team effort. In order for things to run smoothly, like we always hope, we must collaborate. I feel that collaborating mean contributing, listening, and explaining. Collaboration teaches you to add detail because if you don’t add detail when talking to someone, people will often misunderstand or come to a stop sign because something wasn’t clear. The same is for other things such as blueprints, reports, and others.

This project has taught me many life skills and I feel connection this project to resilience, collaboration, and creativity, then deepens your understanding even more.


Nervous System Reflection #2

My group had some challenges that didn’t occur to us before. But when ever we ran into this obstacles we made adjustments.

Whenever we made an adjustment or added something new, we would rewrite our diagram of our working model so that we had something familiar to look at that we could follow.

Some of the new challenges we faced was taking in the account of how heavy our brain was and trying to fit it onto the sheer cardboard vertical base we had wouldn’t be enough. So what we added strength to our base by reinforcing it with more cardboard. We also didn’t take in the account that if we do end up presenting in the BBT during conferences, how the audience will know how to work it if they come while our hour isn’t there. So we have decide to put labels on both the working model themselves, and have a set of instructions on the side.

What we plan to do in the future lessons we have left, is to simply assemble the working models since we have all the parts but we need to put them together and glue them on our base. After we do so, we can see if there are any last minute tweaks, and finally at the end we will add finishing touches such as labels on the working model and also the instruction sheet on the side. Afterwards, the only thing is to update our diagram/plan one last time and add any relevant decoration that could help our audience comprehend the model easier.

PBL Nervous System Reflection

My group is doing the Nervous System. In our last lesson we began to build the base of our working model and began constructing the arms. The arms were made of big plastic bottles and the base was made of cardboard. We realised that one of the materials we were planning to use might be a problem. This material was the helium balloons because after a while the helium runs out and won’t float anymore.  I am in charge of bringing clay (to make the brain), food colouring (for a more easily seen version of water), and 10 water bottles (both to hold the fluid, and to make the arms).



My Body System

I have chosen to do the Nervous system. I wanted to learn something new so I chose mainly from the systems we did not study in class.  After reading the research questions from the guide, I realised I could answer  the least of those questions than the other systems. This was because I only had a general and broad view of the system.  Also, for each system I put down as a choice, I tried to draw a diagram of how I would ensemble a real life working model of that system. When I sketched out the nervous system I thought of many different ideas  I could use to make the model. So I am excited to start the research and begin building.

The Bronze Bow

The Bronze Bow is a historical fiction book. It is placed in the time of when the Romans took over and in slaved the Jews. This is also the period when Jesus came but back then nobody knew who he is.

Character review:

Daniel: main character. Obsessed with having only vengeance for his parents and everybody else.

Samson: A strong black man. Never talks nor comprehends words. But cares for Daniel endlessly.

Simon: A slave who helped Daniel escape a terrible master, now a good blacksmith.

Joel and Thacia: Twins who vow with Daniel to seek vengeance for Israel.

Leah: Believed to be possessed by the devils. Never leaves the house nor talks to anyone.

It is about Daniel who had escaped from a terrible blacksmith master.  He went to the mountains where a man named Rosh took him in. Rosh was a leader of a group of bandits who stole from the jewish farmers below. But Rosh secretly covered it up by saying they needed to eat as a reward for working hard, to get one step closer to defeating the Romans.

One day 2 twins came up to the mountains from the village, one a boy and one a girl. Daniel was spying on them when he was caught. They talked and Daniel made his 2 and only friends, Joel and  Mathacia, known as Thacia. Joel and Thacia went down to the village and told his grandmother, his sister, Leah and Simon. Soon he had to leave the mountain to take care of Leah when his grandmother died. Then he would sometimes visit Joel and Thacia. They began to secretly form and gather boys around the village to someday march up to Rosh if help was needed. He also began to walk miles on end, day and night to hear Jesus speak. Daniel was torn between Jesus and Rosh. But when Joel was caught for following Rosh’s orders, Rosh refused to help. Daniel realised Rosh was no real leader, and Daniel had turned himself into a monster to be like him. They rescued Joel themselves and as they were on the brink of failing, Samson came in and saved them. But on the way, Samson was killed, and so was his close friend Nathan, who had left behind a bride. Later when he confessed on his love for Thacia, she seemed to be happy. But pushed her away and said no. Then late he yelled at Leah for talking and becoming friends with a Roman. She then turned back into a her ghostly self, no eating or drinking and crying out at night. Then Jesus sailed away, saying that no must follow.

While he sat taking care of Leah while she was dreadfully sick. He saw that now everything was crumbling before him. All his friends had slipped through the cracks before it came crashing down on the too.  He thought that this is what he wanted to be alone would be freedom, without responsibility. But Daniel only felt emptiness, which he could only fill with more hatred and anger.  Then finally the last person was leaving him, Leah. Daniel felt sudden anger as everything was going perfect. Leah soon became so close to him, the demons where slowly weakening and perished. But that one out lash had sent them crawling back and growing to control her completely.

Then Thacia, who had become extremely close to Leah and visited a lot, came in with Jesus. Jesus placed a hand on he and she lifted up, all demons vanished. That was when Daniel realised that his place was with Jesus and he was finally able to leave his anger behind. He saw how Jesus was there, Leah was alive, Thacia gleamed down at him and all had come back to him. Although Joel was sent away to scribe school away in Jerusalem, Daniel could still sense his friend there for him like all the other’s in the room. Finally, with only peace and love, Daniel came up to the Roman boy that had become so close to Leah and invited him in the house.

Conduction, Convection, Thermal Radiation


Metals are such good conductors of heat because like other objects the molecules or atoms get faster and bump around. Then bump into the neighboring atoms or molecules so they begin to speed up too. But along with the atoms there are bare nucleus. When the atoms begin to move faster so do the bare nucleus, whenever they hit an atom it begins to move faster. Because of this the process of bumping and making the atoms quicker doubles in speed.


Hot gas, like hot liquid rises. This is because of the principle of buoyancy. It is an everlasting process of the hot gas/ liquid at the bottom expands and becomes lighter. So it floats to the top and cools. When it cools, it becomes more dense and sinks back to the bottom. Then the bottom heats the hot gas/air and starts the process all over again.

Thermal Radiation:

Even though you don’t come in contact with a campfire, you can still feel it’s heat ( thermal energy. This is because they travel on energy waves from the campfire and to you. These waves rely on nothing to move them from one object to another. That is called thermal Radiation.

Connection to States of Matter:

They are all related to the states of matter. Both conduction and Convection relies on matter to help transfer thermal energy to one object to another. There is the state of gas, and liquid in Convection, that shows us how these two states can be similar and work in the same way. finally, thermal radiation doesn’t need matter to travel but still plays an important role as that is where the Thermal radiation comes from and goes to. As for the other two also!