Grammar

16th October 2014

Types of Sentences:

Simple sentences have a subject and a verb. They are also called independent clauses and express a complete thought. An example of a simple sentence would be: I looked at the wall.

Compound sentences are made of two independent clauses and are connected with a coordinating conjunction. The coordinating conjunctions are sometimes known as FANBOYS because the first letter of each conjunction put together spells FANBOYS. The coordinating conjunctions are For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So. An example of a compound sentence would be: I looked at the wall and there was paint on it.

Complex sentences are made of two kinds of clauses. Main clauses, the main information of the sentence, and subordinate clauses, the additional details. Main clauses can make a sentence on their own, but subordinate clauses cannot. Some subordinating conjunctions are: after, even though, unless, whenever. Subordinating clauses can be used at the beginning or the end of a sentence. They can also be used in between or split into two parts. An example of a complex sentence would be: As I looked at the wall, I noticed the paint dry.

 

16th October 2014

Tenses Table

6th October, 2014

Punctuating Dialogue:

-All dialogue MUST have punctuation at the end.

 

-If the dialogue is supposed to end with a period but indirect speech is put after the dialogue, the period becomes a comma.

-E.g: “I don’t want it to remain a mystery,” Sam tells his friends sitting next to him, “I want to know how I did on the test.”

-The first part of this dialogue ends with a comma because after it is indirect speech, not part of the dialogue.

-The second part of this dialogue ends with a period because there is no indirect speech after it and it ends the sentence.

 

 

-If the dialogue ends with another form of punctuation, such as an exclamation mark or a question mark, it doesn’t need to end with a comma.

-E.g: “I really want to know!” shouts Sam, “How did I do on the test?”

-The first part of this dialogue ends with an exclamation mark, it doesn’t need to end with a comma.

 

 

-After dialogue, the beginning of the indirect speech is not capitalized, with the exception of capitalizing “I’s” and names

 

23rd September, 2014

Commas:

When to use commas:
-To separate phrases that aren’t necessary to be there.
-To use a conjunction to link two independent clauses.
-To specifically address someone.
-To list something.
-To use multiple adjectives to describe one noun.
-To end introductory clauses or phrases.

When NOT to use commas:
-To seperate two independent clauses with no conjunction.
-To be placed after a conjunction.
-To seperate a dependent and independent clause with a conjunction.
-To add a pause to a sentence.

 

4th September, 2014.

Active and Passive Voice:

Active Voice:
Active voice is a sentence or phrase that has a subject before the verb. It is more common than passive voice. An example of active voice would be “Sally sang a song.”

 

Passive Voice:
Passive voice is the opposite of active voice. Passive voice has the verb before the subject. Sometimes passive voice doesn’t tell you the subject! Passive voice is generally weaker than active voice. An example of passive voice would be “The song was sung by Sally.”

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